Coaching is an inherent social activity with coach and client influencing each other reciprocally. Two main dimensions of social interaction are dominance (opposed to submissiveness) and affiliation (with friendliness on one side and hostility on the other). According to a German study, only the combination of friendly and dominant coaching behavior is in linked to positive coaching outcomes such as client goal attainment. Combined friendly-dominant coaching behaviors could be smiling, eye-contact, empathetic or considerate behaviors as well as postural expansion, relaxation, talking with a firm clear voice, being assertive, self-assured, or being direct.
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