Female leaders who show narcissistic tendencies are rated as less effective by their male subordinates, according to a study conducted in the Netherlands. Narcissists typically show a lack of concern for other people, arrogance, and a sense of self-grandiosity. The authors of the study assume that these features violate female gender stereotypes and thereby lead to a less favorable evaluation of narcissistic female leaders. Interestingly, male narcissistic leaders received no penalty in their subordinates' evaluation.
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